Attitudes, Motivation, and Beliefs of Online Foreign Language Learners Amidst the Pandemic


  • Kasumi Arciaga Utsunomiya University, Japan,
  • Rochelle Irene Lucas De La Salle University, Philippines,


language learning motivation, attitudes about language learning, beliefs about language learning, covid-19 pandemic, online language learning


Covid-19 pandemic was an event which undeniably changed the paradigm of
language learning. Online language learning has emerged as a significant catalyst,
shedding light on distinctive attitudes, motivations, and beliefs among learners.
The aim of the present study was to explore how learners articulated their
attitudes, motivations, and beliefs in this context. To achieve these objectives, two
hundred thirteen respondents participated in the study, completing modified
versions of the AMTB (Attitude/Motivation Test Battery) and BALLI (Beliefs
about Language Learning Inventory) questionnaires. In addition, eight online
language learners were engaged in one-on-one interviews. Quantitative data were
subjected to descriptive statistical analysis, while qualitative data were transcribed
and examined using thematic analysis techniques as proposed by Auerbach &
Silverstein (2003). Drawing upon the Complex Dynamic Theory by LarsenFreeman (2017), the study's findings revealed that foreign language learning
during the Covid-19 pandemic constitutes a complex dynamic construct that is
profoundly influenced by learners' attitudes, motivations, and beliefs. These
findings align with prior research, suggesting that learners generally have positive
attitudes toward language learning and the target language community, and they
exhibit a high level of motivation in their pursuit of online language acquisition.




How to Cite

Arciaga , K., & Lucas , R. I. (2024). Attitudes, Motivation, and Beliefs of Online Foreign Language Learners Amidst the Pandemic . International Journal of Instruction, 17(3), 665–678. Retrieved from