Online Learning in Higher Education – Learners' Perceptions, Interaction, Flexibility and Challenges


  • Haifaa Majadly Dr., Al-Qasemi Academic College of Education, Israel,
  • Nayif Awad Dr., Sakhnin Academic College of Education, Israel,
  • Marcel Amasha Dr., Sakhnin Academic College of Education, Israel,


pre-service teachers, learning interaction, online learning, higher education, flexibility


The current study explores preservice teachers' engagement in online learning. A
total of 653 students from two Arab teacher-training colleges in Israel answered an
attitude questionnaire focusing on four significant aspects of online learning:
participants’ perceptions; interactions with online learning; learning flexibility;
and challenges of online learning. Inferential statistics methods were employed,
mainly MANOVA analysis and the Structural Equation Modelling approach
model (SEM). Results indicate the participants' readiness to learn online, showing
positive perceptions towards online learning and highlighting the method's
flexibility, even though several challenges are still impeding the learning process.
The study also shows that the participants’ perceptions, the method's flexibility
and learning challenges, in addition to the learners' demographic variables, could
affect the learners' interaction with online learning. The study results could help in
understanding the associations between the perceptions of and experiences with
online learning, specifically students' online interaction. Future research could
examine other aspects relating to students’ interaction with online learning and the
relationship of online learning with the learners' properties and the method's




How to Cite

Majadly , H., Awad, N., & Amasha , M. (2024). Online Learning in Higher Education – Learners’ Perceptions, Interaction, Flexibility and Challenges. International Journal of Instruction, 17(3), 545–564. Retrieved from