Key Elements of Effective Mandatory Professional Development Programs


  • Dennis Alonzo University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia,
  • Ria Asih Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang, Indonesia,
  • Cherry Zin Oo Yangon University of Education, Yangon, Myanmar,
  • Giovanni Pelobillo University of Mindanao, Philippines,
  • Rex Lim Department of Education, Davao City Division, Philippines,


professional development (PD), mandatory PD, elements of PD, effective PD, professional development programs


Mandatory professional development (PD) programs are prevalent in the system
despite research evidence of its weakness in changing teachers’ actual classroom
practices. There is no coherent understanding of what makes mandatory PD
programs effective. We accessed 23 articles from three databases using the
Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis to develop a
knowledge base of mandatory PD. We explored how mandatory PD programs
have been researched and conceptualised, emphasising what key elements support
teachers’ implementation of their acquired knowledge and skills. We developed a
framework for designing a mandatory PD program with integrated system-level
and school-level extended programs to ensure its effectiveness. Our findings
expand Desimone’s elements of effective PD to include school-extended elements
such as opportunity and autonomy to implement, monitoring and evaluation
mechanisms, and support and resources for teachers. The framework has
implications for articulating policy, improving mandatory PD practices, and
theoretical understanding of effective mandatory PD programs.




How to Cite

Alonzo , D., Asih , R., Oo , C. Z., Pelobillo , G., & Lim , R. (2024). Key Elements of Effective Mandatory Professional Development Programs. International Journal of Instruction, 17(3), 355–370. Retrieved from




Most read articles by the same author(s)