Undergraduates’ Perception, Engagement and Learning Experience in Online Learning amid Covid-19 Pandemic


  • Saw Fen Tan Wawasan Open University, Malaysia,
  • Li Hsien Ooi Wawasan Open University, Malaysia,
  • Lee Yen Melissa Ng Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia,
  • Tze Ying Sim Sunway University, Malaysia,


online learning, perception, engagement, learning experience, undergraduate


Due to the physical separation of lecturers and learners, many students have
expressed dissatisfaction with their online learning experience. The growing
prevalence of online education highlights the imperative to explore the factors
influencing students’ online experience. This study aims to explore the
relationships between undergraduate students’ perception, engagement and
experiences in online learning. Employing a quantitative design, a cluster
sampling technique was utilised to select a representative sample of 609
undergraduate students from various degree courses across four public and private
universities in Malaysia. The survey questionnaires, derived from the Online
Learning Perception Scale, Engagement in Online Learning Scale and Community
of Inquiry Survey, were administered through internet survey. Structural Equation
Modelling (SEM) was used to analyse the data. Findings revealed that students’
perceptions of online learning and online engagements both directly affect their
online learning experiences. The results also showed that students’ perception of
learning directly contributes to their online learning experience. Students’ online
engagement mediates the relationship between students’ perception and their
online learning experience. Recommendations for future studies and limitations of
the study were also discussed.




How to Cite

Tan , S. F., Ooi , L. H., Ng , L. Y. M., & Sim , T. Y. (2024). Undergraduates’ Perception, Engagement and Learning Experience in Online Learning amid Covid-19 Pandemic. International Journal of Instruction, 17(2), 401–418. Retrieved from https://e-iji.net/ats/index.php/pub/article/view/568