Procrastination Among University Students: A Study Investigating Sociodemographic and Psychological Factors


  • Sergio Nieto-Fernández Universitat de Barcelona, Spain,
  • Adrien Faure-Carvallo Universitat de Barcelona, Spain,
  • Caterina Calderon Universitat de Barcelona, Spain,
  • Josep Gustems Universitat de Barcelona, Spain,


procrastination, higher education, personality, psychological distress, time management


Procrastination is a widespread problem that is very common among university
populations and is associated to negative consequences. The aim of this study is to
analyze procrastination in university students and its relationship with
sociodemographic and psychological variables. A multicenter study involving 845
university students was conducted, with participants completing several
questionnaires, including the Procrastination Assessment Scale-Student (PASS),
Academic Time Management (ATM), Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI-18), and
Big Five Inventory-10 (BFI-10). The study subsequently examined procrastination
patterns among these students, distinguishing between low and high
procrastination profiles, and explored demographic and psychological variations
using ANOVA, Chi-square analysis, and logistic regression. Results showed that
forty-seven percent of students procrastinate, and males procrastinate more than
female students (p=.018). Procrastination was related to psychological variables
(more anxiety, depression, somatization), personality variables (less
conscientiousness and agreeableness), and time management (organization,
follow-up, and assignment completion). More responsible students who better plan
their time and track their progress procrastinate less. It would be necessary to
provide interventions for university students at risk of suffering negative
consequences from procrastination.




How to Cite

Nieto-Fernández , S., Faure-Carvallo, A., Calderon , C., & Gustems , J. (2024). Procrastination Among University Students: A Study Investigating Sociodemographic and Psychological Factors. International Journal of Instruction, 17(2), 367–382. Retrieved from