Slovak EFL Teachers' Perceptions of Using L1 at English Lessons


  • Rastislav Metruk Department of English Language and Literature, Faculty of Humanities, University of Žilina, Slovakia,
  • Patrícia Rafajdusová Department of English Language and Literature, Faculty of Education, Trnava University, Slovakia,


EFL teacher, in-service English language teacher, EFL learner, teaching English, L1, native language, mother tongue, L2, foreign language


Using L1 (mother tongue) for the purposes of the target language teaching and learning has been the subject of ample debate throughout the years, generating considerable controversy among instructors and researchers. Although the principles of CLT (communicative language teaching) somehow “delimit” to a certain extent its use at EFL (English as a foreign language) classes, attitudes towards the implementation of L1 into foreign language classes may vary considerably. Thus, this article endeavours to plug this gap by examining the Slovak in-service EFL teachers’ (n = 140) perceptions of using L1 at English classes by acquiring and interpreting the data derived from the research method of a questionnaire, employing a 5-point likers scale items. The research outcomes indicate that although it is the tactful, sound, and judicious use of L1 that is favoured by the teachers, the mother tongue appears to take on a relatively high importance in the realms of EFL teaching and learning. Finally, pedagogical implications are discussed, and suggestions are provided regarding the use of L1 at L2 classes. It is vital that furt




How to Cite

Metruk, R., & Rafajdusová, P. (2024). Slovak EFL Teachers’ Perceptions of Using L1 at English Lessons. International Journal of Instruction, 17(1), 755–768. Retrieved from